There are many tools which can help to prepare the capacity assessment or audit.1 A stakeholder analysis might support the interviewer in identifying relevant interview partners and questions.2
Stakeholders are individuals, interest groups or organizations which are positively or negatively affected by projects and programmes, and who often have an impact on successful project and programme implementation and realization.
If the aim is to develop certain capacities for reducing health inequities, the interviewer could screen materials and/or organize a brainstorming session with colleagues or members of the RAG to identify the relevant stakeholders.
The interviewer can organize the lists of stakeholders by grouping private sector, public sector and civil society actors. After completing the lists, the interest and power of the stakeholders can be discussed and placed in a matrix similar to the one shown in Figure 24.
- Stakeholders with a high level of interest and power are particularly important. It is possible to engage them closely and actively try to influence them. They are decision makers or opinion leaders with a high degree of influence on decision makers.
- Stakeholders with a high level of interest but little power should be kept informed. They may be able to exert influence on the decision makers / opinion leaders (lobbying).
- Stakeholders with low levels of interest but a lot of power should be kept satisfied. It is unlikely they can be convinced to be very active supporters, but they could become patrons and support the project to a certain degree. The risk of negative influences on the project undertaken should be minimized as much as possible
- Stakeholders with low levels of interest and little power are not important, but should at least be monitored should any circumstances, power and interests change.
Another tool that can be used is an influence mapping exercise. It provides more information about the interests, the nature of power and the stakeholders’ influence and channels to influence decision makers and opinion leaders (Figure 25).
1The British Overseas Development Institute offers a lot of materials and introduces many interesting tools for “development”, e.g. for communication and knowledge management. While the Institute focusses on developments in “developing” countries, the tools are of course also very useful for EU countries and regions. See: http://www.odi.org.uk/programmes/rapid.